scientificillustration
scienceyoucanlove:

A Sticky Spike
By Sriram Subramaniam and Donald Bliss, NIH
HIV infects macrophages and T cells when the major protein “spike” on its surface binds to CD4 and a chemokine coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) on the immune cells. This spike contains a trimer of glycoprotein 120 (gp120) sitting atop trimer of gp41 embedded in the viral membrane. gp120 and gp41 are encoded by a single viral gene (Envelop), with its resulting polypeptide cleaved by the host protease Furin. Gp120 binds directly to CD4, and gp41 facilitates membrane fusion.
Image: On left, 3D structure of a single simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) obtained with cryo-electron tomography; the architecture of SIV’s surface ‘spikes’ (blue) is similar to that of HIV. On right, 3D cryo-electron tomography reveals HIV-1’s glycoprotein “spike” in complex with a soluble CD4 protein and a coreceptor mimic (17b) at ~20 Å resolution. Three copies of the coordinates for the ternary complex between gp120 (red), soluble CD4 (yellow) and 17b (cyan) have been fitted to the density map to produce a molecular model for spike structure. Learn more in White et al (2010) and Liu et al. (2008).
from cell.com

scienceyoucanlove:

A Sticky Spike

By Sriram Subramaniam and Donald Bliss, NIH

HIV infects macrophages and T cells when the major protein “spike” on its surface binds to CD4 and a chemokine coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) on the immune cells. This spike contains a trimer of glycoprotein 120 (gp120) sitting atop trimer of gp41 embedded in the viral membrane. gp120 and gp41 are encoded by a single viral gene (Envelop), with its resulting polypeptide cleaved by the host protease Furin. Gp120 binds directly to CD4, and gp41 facilitates membrane fusion.

Image: On left, 3D structure of a single simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) obtained with cryo-electron tomography; the architecture of SIV’s surface ‘spikes’ (blue) is similar to that of HIV. On right, 3D cryo-electron tomography reveals HIV-1’s glycoprotein “spike” in complex with a soluble CD4 protein and a coreceptor mimic (17b) at ~20 Å resolution. Three copies of the coordinates for the ternary complex between gp120 (red), soluble CD4 (yellow) and 17b (cyan) have been fitted to the density map to produce a molecular model for spike structure. Learn more in White et al (2010) and Liu et al. (2008).

from cell.com

laboratoryequipment
laboratoryequipment:

HIV Prevention Drug Shows PromiseExciting research suggests that a shot every one to three months may someday give an alternative to the daily pills that some people take now to cut their risk of getting HIV.The experimental drug has only been tested for prevention in monkeys, but it completely protected them from infection in two studies reported at an AIDS conference.Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/03/hiv-prevention-drug-shows-promise

laboratoryequipment:

HIV Prevention Drug Shows Promise

Exciting research suggests that a shot every one to three months may someday give an alternative to the daily pills that some people take now to cut their risk of getting HIV.

The experimental drug has only been tested for prevention in monkeys, but it completely protected them from infection in two studies reported at an AIDS conference.

Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/03/hiv-prevention-drug-shows-promise

Crowd-funded HIV vaccine project sparks debate

A group seeking crowd-funding to develop an HIV vaccine has received start-up cash from Silicon Valley, but HIV experts are skeptical about its prospects for success. “They’re preying on people who are desperate for a vaccine,” says one immunologist. 

Project Immunity seeks to develop a vaccine that triggers immune cells called T cells to attack HIV (shown here). courtesy Thomas Deerinck. NCMIR

Crowd-funded HIV vaccine project sparks debate

A group seeking crowd-funding to develop an HIV vaccine has received start-up cash from Silicon Valley, but HIV experts are skeptical about its prospects for success. “They’re preying on people who are desperate for a vaccine,” says one immunologist. 

  • Project Immunity seeks to develop a vaccine that triggers immune cells called T cells to attack HIV (shown here). courtesy Thomas Deerinck. NCMIR
Up Close and Three-dimensional: HIV Caught in the Act inside the Gut (with video!)PLOS Pathogens reports the first 3-D ultra-structural study of HIV infection in vivo, revealing details on how the virus quickly infects and “hides out” within the gut.
Check out the video: http://www.plos.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/PLOS_Pathogens_Bjorkman_Jan30_Video.mp4
 
Read the article here: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003899

Up Close and Three-dimensional: HIV Caught in the Act inside the Gut (with video!)
PLOS Pathogens reports the first 3-D ultra-structural study of HIV infection in vivo, revealing details on how the virus quickly infects and “hides out” within the gut.

TARGETED TOXIN COULD KILL HIV-INFECTED CELLS

A toxin created by scientists is able to kill cells where HIV is replicating despite antiretroviral therapy, a new mouse study shows.
The findings suggest that the genetically modified bacterial toxin, called 3B3-PE38 and created in 1998, could be used as a complement to antiretroviral therapy (ART), noted researchers from the National Institutes of Health and the University of North Carolina School of Medicine.
Right now, antiretroviral therapy is used to manage HIV in people with the condition by suppressing and stopping progression of the virus. However, the therapy currently needs to be taken for an infected person’s lifetime or else HIV will reappear, and even if a person takes the therapy, cells in different tissues of the body can still express HIV.
For the study, published in the journal PLOS Pathogens, researchers took mice engineered to have human immune systems and infected them with HIV. Then, the mice were given antiretroviral drugs for four weeks. The researchers then split the mice into two groups: One group then received two weeks of the special immunotoxin in addition to the antiretrovirals, while the other group of mice continued to receive just the antiretrovirals.
Researchers found that the mice given the immunotoxin in addition to the antiretroviral therapy had fewer HIV-infected cells that were producing the virus. In addition, they had lower HIV blood levels, compared with the mice who only received the antiretroviral therapy.

TARGETED TOXIN COULD KILL HIV-INFECTED CELLS

A toxin created by scientists is able to kill cells where HIV is replicating despite antiretroviral therapy, a new mouse study shows.

The findings suggest that the genetically modified bacterial toxin, called 3B3-PE38 and created in 1998, could be used as a complement to antiretroviral therapy (ART), noted researchers from the National Institutes of Health and the University of North Carolina School of Medicine.

Right now, antiretroviral therapy is used to manage HIV in people with the condition by suppressing and stopping progression of the virus. However, the therapy currently needs to be taken for an infected person’s lifetime or else HIV will reappear, and even if a person takes the therapy, cells in different tissues of the body can still express HIV.

For the study, published in the journal PLOS Pathogens, researchers took mice engineered to have human immune systems and infected them with HIV. Then, the mice were given antiretroviral drugs for four weeks. The researchers then split the mice into two groups: One group then received two weeks of the special immunotoxin in addition to the antiretrovirals, while the other group of mice continued to receive just the antiretrovirals.

Researchers found that the mice given the immunotoxin in addition to the antiretroviral therapy had fewer HIV-infected cells that were producing the virus. In addition, they had lower HIV blood levels, compared with the mice who only received the antiretroviral therapy.