nanuen
nanuen:

Researchers have, for the first time, successfully grown cells ex vivo that replicates vaginal tissue and its resident microbes. One of the benefits of this feat is that it will allow scientists to investigate how prescription or over-the-counter pharmaceuticals like contraceptives, antibiotics and antifungals interact with both “good” and “bad” microbes and vaginal skin cells. A study recently published in PLoS ONE used this model of microbial/human vaginal tissue to discover that certain bacterial communities alter the way HIV infects and replicates. Additionally, they have discovered that a bacterial community associated with bacterial vaginosis substantially reduced the antiviral activity of one of the leading anti-HIV medicines.Read more: http://bit.ly/PcHJ13Publication: Cultivated Vaginal Microbiomes Alter HIV-1 Infection and Antiretroviral Efficacy in Colonized Epithelial Multilayer Cultures. PLoS ONE, 2014 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093419Image: TEM of immature budding HIV-1 virus particles budding from cell membrane of CEM cell culture. Scale bar is 100 nanometres. 200,000xImage credit: R. Dourmashkin, Wellcome Images

nanuen:

Researchers have, for the first time, successfully grown cells ex vivo that replicates vaginal tissue and its resident microbes. One of the benefits of this feat is that it will allow scientists to investigate how prescription or over-the-counter pharmaceuticals like contraceptives, antibiotics and antifungals interact with both “good” and “bad” microbes and vaginal skin cells. 
A study recently published in PLoS ONE used this model of microbial/human vaginal tissue to discover that certain bacterial communities alter the way HIV infects and replicates. Additionally, they have discovered that a bacterial community associated with bacterial vaginosis substantially reduced the antiviral activity of one of the leading anti-HIV medicines.

Read more: http://bit.ly/PcHJ13
Publication: Cultivated Vaginal Microbiomes Alter HIV-1 Infection and Antiretroviral Efficacy in Colonized Epithelial Multilayer Cultures. PLoS ONE, 2014 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093419

Image: TEM of immature budding HIV-1 virus particles budding from cell membrane of CEM cell culture. Scale bar is 100 nanometres. 200,000x
Image credit: R. Dourmashkin, Wellcome Images

scientificillustration
scienceyoucanlove:

A Sticky Spike
By Sriram Subramaniam and Donald Bliss, NIH
HIV infects macrophages and T cells when the major protein “spike” on its surface binds to CD4 and a chemokine coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) on the immune cells. This spike contains a trimer of glycoprotein 120 (gp120) sitting atop trimer of gp41 embedded in the viral membrane. gp120 and gp41 are encoded by a single viral gene (Envelop), with its resulting polypeptide cleaved by the host protease Furin. Gp120 binds directly to CD4, and gp41 facilitates membrane fusion.
Image: On left, 3D structure of a single simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) obtained with cryo-electron tomography; the architecture of SIV’s surface ‘spikes’ (blue) is similar to that of HIV. On right, 3D cryo-electron tomography reveals HIV-1’s glycoprotein “spike” in complex with a soluble CD4 protein and a coreceptor mimic (17b) at ~20 Å resolution. Three copies of the coordinates for the ternary complex between gp120 (red), soluble CD4 (yellow) and 17b (cyan) have been fitted to the density map to produce a molecular model for spike structure. Learn more in White et al (2010) and Liu et al. (2008).
from cell.com

scienceyoucanlove:

A Sticky Spike

By Sriram Subramaniam and Donald Bliss, NIH

HIV infects macrophages and T cells when the major protein “spike” on its surface binds to CD4 and a chemokine coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) on the immune cells. This spike contains a trimer of glycoprotein 120 (gp120) sitting atop trimer of gp41 embedded in the viral membrane. gp120 and gp41 are encoded by a single viral gene (Envelop), with its resulting polypeptide cleaved by the host protease Furin. Gp120 binds directly to CD4, and gp41 facilitates membrane fusion.

Image: On left, 3D structure of a single simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) obtained with cryo-electron tomography; the architecture of SIV’s surface ‘spikes’ (blue) is similar to that of HIV. On right, 3D cryo-electron tomography reveals HIV-1’s glycoprotein “spike” in complex with a soluble CD4 protein and a coreceptor mimic (17b) at ~20 Å resolution. Three copies of the coordinates for the ternary complex between gp120 (red), soluble CD4 (yellow) and 17b (cyan) have been fitted to the density map to produce a molecular model for spike structure. Learn more in White et al (2010) and Liu et al. (2008).

from cell.com

laboratoryequipment
laboratoryequipment:

HIV Prevention Drug Shows PromiseExciting research suggests that a shot every one to three months may someday give an alternative to the daily pills that some people take now to cut their risk of getting HIV.The experimental drug has only been tested for prevention in monkeys, but it completely protected them from infection in two studies reported at an AIDS conference.Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/03/hiv-prevention-drug-shows-promise

laboratoryequipment:

HIV Prevention Drug Shows Promise

Exciting research suggests that a shot every one to three months may someday give an alternative to the daily pills that some people take now to cut their risk of getting HIV.

The experimental drug has only been tested for prevention in monkeys, but it completely protected them from infection in two studies reported at an AIDS conference.

Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/03/hiv-prevention-drug-shows-promise

Crowd-funded HIV vaccine project sparks debate

A group seeking crowd-funding to develop an HIV vaccine has received start-up cash from Silicon Valley, but HIV experts are skeptical about its prospects for success. “They’re preying on people who are desperate for a vaccine,” says one immunologist. 

Project Immunity seeks to develop a vaccine that triggers immune cells called T cells to attack HIV (shown here). courtesy Thomas Deerinck. NCMIR

Crowd-funded HIV vaccine project sparks debate

A group seeking crowd-funding to develop an HIV vaccine has received start-up cash from Silicon Valley, but HIV experts are skeptical about its prospects for success. “They’re preying on people who are desperate for a vaccine,” says one immunologist. 

  • Project Immunity seeks to develop a vaccine that triggers immune cells called T cells to attack HIV (shown here). courtesy Thomas Deerinck. NCMIR
Up Close and Three-dimensional: HIV Caught in the Act inside the Gut (with video!)PLOS Pathogens reports the first 3-D ultra-structural study of HIV infection in vivo, revealing details on how the virus quickly infects and “hides out” within the gut.
Check out the video: http://www.plos.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/PLOS_Pathogens_Bjorkman_Jan30_Video.mp4
 
Read the article here: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003899

Up Close and Three-dimensional: HIV Caught in the Act inside the Gut (with video!)
PLOS Pathogens reports the first 3-D ultra-structural study of HIV infection in vivo, revealing details on how the virus quickly infects and “hides out” within the gut.